The aquarium is a place for aquatic life reproduction, exhibition and popular science education. It is also a place for aquatic biological resource protection and scientific research. Aquariums can specialize in marine or freshwater organisms, or both. They include public aquariums for viewing or popularizing scientific knowledge, and aquariums for scientific research and teaching. The so-called "underwater world" and "polar ocean world" also belong to the aquarium.
Element 1: Aquarium plants
Properly plant water and grass in the freshwater aquarium;
Beautify the aquarium;
Absorb carbon dioxide exhaled by fish and release oxygen;
Absorb fish excrement decomposed by bacteria to purify water quality;
It can be used as an appendage for fish eggs and a hiding place for frightened fish.
The larvae of some aquatic plants can be used as supplementary food for herbivorous fish.
Common aquatic plant species in tropical fish aquariums in my country are ferns, chrysanthemums, crowngrass, hypericum, willow grass, pagoda grass, silk grass, sedge grass and staghorn grass. The aquatic plants often planted in the goldfish aquarium are: water bamboo leaves, manjiang red, locust leaf duckweed, myriophyllum, bitter grass and black algae. Myriophyllum sp. is often used as a spawning ground for goldfish. The types and significance of algae culture in circulating seawater aquariums are still in the exploratory stage. When growing seaweed, consider flow, light, and temperature. The algae that can be fed in the water tank for more than 45 days include Enteromorpha, ferns, pine algae, and hard hair algae. Seaweed should not be grown in seafood ponds. Some algae, such as water clouds, reproduce very quickly in animal ponds in summer. If they are not washed with lime water or copper sulfate solution, they will muddy the sea and make animals invisible within three days.
Aquarium design element 2: water supply method
There are basically three types of water supply: open, closed and semi-closed.
In an open water supply system, water flows through the water tank and is discarded. Its water quality is close to the natural environment, and toxic metabolic waste will not accumulate. However, temperature control and pumping are costly and often require filtration.
The water in the closed water supply system is recirculated, but the water is changed regularly. The excrement cannot be continuously washed away from the system, so it must be treated. An important issue is that ammonia must be quickly removed or converted, because ammonia is harmful even at very low concentrations. In the water tank, the bacteria that convert ammonia to nitrite are mainly present in the filter material. A sandy slow filter with a large surface area is usually used to ensure the presence of these bacteria. Plant growth in water tanks, especially plant growth in seawater supply systems, usually cannot make full use of all nitrate produced by bacteria from nitrite. Although some water tanks have rarely changed water over the years, they usually need to change 1-10% of the water every month to keep nitrate levels low. The use of carbon in freshwater and seawater water supply systems can help slow down the accumulation of nitrogenous waste. The excrement also increases the acidity of the water. Carbonate compounds are often used to keep acidity at an optimal level, especially when the water is not changed frequently.
The semi-closed water supply system is basically the same as the closed water supply system, but has a fixed connection with the water source. Regularly add new water to control the problem of dissolved waste. The cost of controlling water temperature and pumping water is lower than open water supply.
In modern aquariums, tanks of different sizes and shapes are often put together to avoid "fish tanks", which is common in old-fashioned formal aquariums. The three-dimensional scenery behind the tank creates the illusion of distance; the storage tank can be located in a natural environment, or it can be filled or coated with fiberglass to simulate all environments. Modern aquariums try to show the natural habitat of various fishes.
Aquarium design element three: the choice of aquarium
In modern aquariums, water tanks of different sizes and shapes are often put together to avoid the "fish box" appearance that some older formal aquariums often have. The three-dimensional scenery at the rear of the water tank creates the illusion of distance; the location of the water tank may be a natural environment, or it may be perfused or coated with glass fiber to imitate all environments. Modern aquariums try to show the natural living environment of the various fish on display.
Polished flat glass, tempered and polished flat glass and plexiglass are commonly used transparent materials. Polished flat glass is usually only used in small aquariums because it breaks into large pieces when its strength decreases. The usual practice is to add 2-3 layers of tempered glass to the large water tank, even if it is broken, it is limited to one layer of glass. Plexiglass is easily scratched, but it can be repolished.
The auxiliary equipment of the water tank usually includes filters, air pumps, lights, immersion heaters controlled by electronic thermostats or other cooling devices. In an aquarium, water tanks are usually put together, so there are ordinary filters and temperature control devices. It may also include a water sterilizer. In a large aquarium with multiple systems, indoor water supply and drainage facilities are sometimes complicated, involving various automatic control devices and water quality monitoring systems.